Catalytic Converters

  • Mechanism


Broken down, the catalytic converter gives its’ meaning in its’ root compounds.  Catalyst, or anything (person, substance or thing) which produces a change without undergoing a permanent change itself.  Convert, or to change from one thing to another thing of different structure.  The chemical compound that automobiles emit is Oxygen (O2) combined with carbon monoxide (CO) and unburned hydrocarbons (HC).  When filtered through the catalytic converter they produce a safer carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O).  This was called a “two-way” converter.  Later in the 1980’s the two-way became obsolete as a three-way converter also reduced oxides of nitrogen (NOx).  A French mechanical engineer, Eugene Houdrey, moved to the United States in 1930.  At the time he became interested in the smog study publications in Los Angeles and wondered what role the smokestacks and automobile exhaust were playing in the production of these toxins in the atmosphere.  He began with forklifts early on that used low grade and unleaded gasoline.  Later in his research, the catalytic converter became developed into primarily gasoline engines.  Specifically those in automobiles.  As emissions became a larger concern in the United States, these emission controlling devices were put into mass production in 1973.  Into the 80’s Canada and the United States primarily required automobiles to have catalytic converters to pass their inspections and reduce harmful toxins into the environment with other countries gradually enforcing emissions regulation steadily through the turn of the century.  Emissions are regulated by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and mandatory use of the oxidation-reduction catalytic converters has been enforced since 1975.


  • Construction


In order to maintain the aforementioned structural integrity of the device while exacerbating the chemical reaction, the catalytic converter itself is made up of several precious metals.  These strong metals are able to withstand very high temperatures without heavy damage or corrosion.  4 components are integral to the construction of catalytic converters beginning with the support or substrate.  These have a large surface area for use to provide very high heat resistance.  The wash coat is a conductor for the components to be carried over that surface area using a rough surface thus further increasing surface area.  The use of aluminum oxide, silicon dioxide, titanium dioxide or a mixture of silica and alumina suspend the compounds in the wash coat before progressing to the core of the converter.  Next, two oxides (ceria or ceria-zirconia) provide extra oxygen stores to maximize the clean output.  Lastly, the core, the catalyst, is this foundation of precious metals.  The best active converter is platinum, however, it is not always the best choice due to cost and reactions less desirable in the oxidation process.  Rhodium is the other most common metal used in catalytic converters, of iron, manganese, nickel, and cerium frequently implemented as well.  Each metal has its own set of desired and undesired reactions at various temperatures based on the fuel being burned.


  • Common Applications


In everyday life, catalytic converters are found primarily in our automobiles but can also be found in heavy construction equipment, passenger trains (locomotives), motorcycles, trucks, and generators.  Any systems where combustion of accellerant fuels the movement and power of an engine.  Most vehicles since 1975 have been equipped with catalytic converters in North America.  Globally,  countries are seeing the effects of toxins on the air quality as traffic increases.  High traffic areas suffer such toxicities as poisoning to humans and animals, acid rain, ecosystem damage as well as structural damage to buildings.  This makes the modest cost of the catalytic converter worth its weight in precious metals.  By the same measure, catalytic converters should be cleaned up to four times a year to maximize efficiency and removal of toxic buildups. For more information on catalytic converter prices, ensure you shop around.

Safety Equipment Brisbane

safety equipment brisbaneLooking for safety equipment in Brisbane?

The first thing which an individual must do before heading to the range is to get appropriate eye and hearing protection gear. By appropriate it means that the gear which you buy must offer you the best protection for your eyes and ears.

This would mean investing in eye gear which not only cover your eyes from the front but can be wrapped around to offer maximum protection. Ricochets can occur anytime and it’s always better to be safe than sorry.

Eye protecting Safety gear

Everyone who works in a factory in Brisbane has used eye protection gear; however, there is an actual difference between regular eye protection gear and eye gear designed for shooters. Regular eye protecting gear is designed to keep the dirt and debris out of your eyes, whereas ballistic shooting glasses are designed according to military guidelines.

These are sent through a rigorous testing before being sold in the market. They are checked for ballistic resistance as well as be able to withstand high velocity impacts.


Tough protection is the number one reason for investing in a pair of ballistic eyes glasses, it’s important for some people that those glasses look aesthetically appealing. If you shoot in the bright light, it’s also necessary to choose eyes glasses with dark lenses. Yellow glasses are the most popular with professional shooters, mainly because they offer a better view of the target, making it pop. On the other hand one drawback to these is they tend to brighten up everything, so they might tend to be a bit too sharp for few people. In such a case using amber colored lenses is a better option. Some glasses even come with interchangeable lenses; this allows the user to adjust the lenses according to their whim.

Hearing protection gear

Those looking for hearing protection gear have the option of choosing between ear muffs or plugs. Though each come with their own set of benefits these should come with specific noise reduction ratings.

Ears muffs can help block the sound completely; they offer complete protection to the ears. Also ear muffs come in handy during cold weather or if you shoot in the outdoor range. However using massive ear muffs when you are shooting outdoors at high temperatures can be pretty much uncomfortable. The bulky ear muffs can make you perspire and are not very portable either. Plus when they are combined with protective eye gear, it can be quite awkward.

Electronic Ear muffs

These days most people prefer using electronic ear muffs, this is because these allow for easy conversations and can only amp up the protection in case of very loud shooting noises.

Ear plugs

Ears plugs are perhaps a more comfortable option. They offer maximum protection while being extremely easy to wear. Plus the fact that they are less expensive then ear muffs is an added advantage. However the foam of ear plugs may lose its form after a few uses, but since they are inexpensive you can invest in a new pair without having to think too much about it.

Finding the right safety equipment in Brisbane is easier than ever. Ensure you only purchase the right safety equipment from an authorised dealer.  Make sure you contact this website.